The evolution of the word 'tea' (or 'cha')

If you look around the world, you might notice that there are two ways to designate 'tea'. One consists of variations of the English term tea, such as thee in Dutch. The other is some variation of 'cha', like chay in Hindi.

Both versions come from China. The words that sound like 'cha' spread across land, along the ancient Silk Road. The 'tea'-like phrasings spread over water, by Dutch traders of the vOC, the very first to bring tea to Europe.
The term cha (茶) is 'Sinitic', meaning it is common to many varieties of Chinese. It began in China and made its way through central Asia, eventually becoming chay (چای) in Persian. That is no doubt due to the trade routes of the Silk Road, along which, according to a recent discovery, tea was already traded over 2,000 years ago. This form spread beyond Persia, becoming chay in Urdu, shay in Arabic and chay in Russian. It even it made its way to sub-Saharan Africa, where it became chai in Swahili. The Japanese and Korean terms for tea are also based on the Chinese cha, though those languages likely adopted the word even before its westward spread into Persian.

The Chinese character for tea, 茶, is pronounced differently by different varieties of Chinese, though it is written the same in them all. In today’s Mandarin, it is chá. But in the Min Nan variety of Chinese, spoken in the coastal province of Fujian, the character is pronounced te.

The te-form, used in coastal-Chinese languages spread to Europe via the Dutch, who became the primary traders of tea between Europe and Asia in the 17th century. The main Dutch ports in east Asia were in Fujian and Taiwan, both places where people used the te-pronunciation. The Dutch East India Company’s expansive tea importation into Europe gave us the Dutch thee, French thé, the German tee and the English tea.
Yet the Dutch were not the first to Asia. That honour belongs to the Portuguese. The Portuguese did not trade not through Fujian but Macao, where chá is used. That’s why, on the map above, Portugal is a pink anomality in a sea of blue.

A few languages have their own way of talking about tea. These languages are generally in places where tea grows naturally, which led locals to develop their own way to refer to it. In Burmese, for example, tea leaves are lakphak.

The map demonstrates two different eras of globalization in action: the millenia-old overland spread of goods and ideas westward from ancient China and the 400-year-old influence of Asian culture on the seafaring Europeans of the age of exploration.

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